The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so. As far as instruction is concerned, the instructor should try and encourage students to discover principles by themselves. The instructor and student should engage in an active dialog i.
Be able to recognize a nail as a fastening device from a non-fastening devices. Cognitive structures are used to provide meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to go beyond the information given. According to Constructivist theory, the instructor should try and encourage students to construct hypotheses, makes decisions, and discover principles by themselves Kearsley b.
The instructor's task is to "translate information to be learned into a format appropriate to the learner's current state of understanding" and organize it in a spiral manner "so that the student continually builds upon what they have already learned.
Instruction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts that make the student willing and able to learn Constructivist theory. Instruction must be structured so that it can be easily grasped by the student spiral organization. Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation and or fill in the gaps going beyond the information given.
The concept of prime numbers appears to be more readily grasped when the child, through construction, discovers that certain handfuls of beans cannot be laid out in completed rows and columns. Such quantities have either to be laid out in a single file or in an incomplete row-column design in which there is always one extra or one too few to fill the pattern.
These patterns, the child learns, happen to be called prime. It is easy for the child to go from this step to the recognition that a multiple table, so called, is a record sheet of quantities in completed multiple rows and columns.
Here is factoring, multiplication and primes in a construction that can be visualized. Recognize and define a prime number. Ask the student to get a handful of pennies, beans, or any other countable object.
Show the students 6 pennies. Show that six pennies can be organized into two groups of three, three groups of two, or one group of six. Ask the student to count out 8 pennies and organize the pennies into as many EQUAL groups as they can. Ask the student to count out 18 pennies and organize the pennies into as many EQUAL groups as they can.
Ask the student to count out 7 pennies and organize the pennies into as many EQUAL groups as they can. Ask the student to count out 13 pennies and organize the pennies into as many EQUAL groups as they can. State that 7 and 13 are prime numbers, while 6, 8, and 18 are not.
Ask the following questions: What is a prime number? What is the rule or principle for determining whether a number is prime or not? Explain the principle that when a certain number of pennies can only be grouped into one equal row or column, then that number is called a prime number.
Show a selection of numbers or examples of different groups of coins. Ask the student to identify which ones are prime. Fahy59 lists the following ways to attract attention: To draw attention, use novelty, differences, motion, changes in intensity or brightness, the presence of moderate complexity, and lean and focussed displays.
Merill cautions against the overuse of attention-getting strategies, especially on the computer. The program should therefore not require the user to read while watching an animated display"as cited in Fahy To increase attention and maintain learner focus, create moderate uncertainty about what is about to happen next or what the eventual outcome of a presentation will be.
To sustain attention, maintain change and variety in the learning environment. To focus attention, teach learners to interpret certain cues such as specific colors, sounds, symbols, fonts, screen or display arrangement, underlining, etc.
To focus attention, use captions in pictures, graphics and illustrations. Improve retention by sequencing screens and presenting related materials together. In designing materials of all kinds sequence is important. Fahy believes that "events ideas, words, concepts and stimuli in general which are not organized in some meaningful way are harder to understand and remember than those which are embedded in some organizational context" p.
Fahy also advises that when sequencing consider that the first and last displays in any sequences are especially important. Provide structural cues to avoid information vertigo. Jones and Farquharrecommend arranging information "in a non-threatening manner through techniques such as chunking, overviews, advance organizers, maps, and a fixed-display format.
It has been applied extensively to the understanding of aggression Banduraas cited in Kearsley c and psychological disorders. Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do.
Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: The processes underlying observational learning are as Kearsley c explains:This constructivist learning theory is one good example for the learner-dependent learning style because the learner will learn with the use of his previous experiences and previous learning.
He will construct new information or new association of the previous and the present experiences and the outcome is the new constructed learning, hence. Comparisons Among Learning Theories.
Behaviorism. Cognitivism. Constructivism: List of Key Theorists.
B.F. Skinner. Ivan Pavlov. Edward Thorndike. John B. Watson. Constructivism does not refer to a specific pedagogy, although it is often confused with constructionism, an educational theory developed by Seymour Papert, .
Constructivist teaching is based on constructivist learning feelthefish.comuctivist teaching is based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge construction as opposed to passively receiving feelthefish.comrs are .
Constructivism as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process. The learner is an information constructor. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality. Constructivism is an epistemology, a learning or meaning-making theory, that offers an explanation of the nature of knowledge and how human beings learn.